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Decarbonising cities : mainstreaming low carbon urban development / Vanessa Rauland, Peter Newman.

Rauland, Vanessa, (Author).

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  • Book Book
  • ISBN: 9783319155050
  • ISBN: 3319155059
  • Description: xviii, 266 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
  • Publisher: Cham, Switzerland : Springer, [2015]

Available copies

  • 1 of 1 copy available at NOBLE (All Libraries).

Current holds

0 current holds with 1 total copy.

Library Location Call Number Status Due Date
Salem State University Stacks TD 885.5 .C5 R38 2015 (Text to Phone) Available -

Content descriptions

Bibliography, etc. Note: Includes bibliographical references.
Contents Note: Machine generated contents note: 1. Addressing Three Wicked Problems -- 1.1. Introduction -- 1.2. Climate Change -- 1.3. Resource Depletion and Environmental Degradation -- 1.4. Population Growth -- 1.5. A Manageable Solution: How Cities Address the Challenges -- 1.6. Aim of the Book -- 1.7. Structure of Book -- References -- 2. The Global Shift to a Low-Carbon Economy -- 2.1. Introduction -- 2.2. Tackling Emissions: The Front-End Versus End-User -- 2.3. End-User Carbon Abatement -- 2.4. Using Cities to Lead the Decarbonisation Effort -- 2.5. Recognising Carbon Reduction in Urban Development -- 2.6. Conclusion -- References -- 3. Why Cities? -- 3.1. Introduction -- 3.2. The Vulnerability of Cities to Climate Change -- 3.3. Cities' Contribution to Carbon Emissions -- 3.4. Why Cities Are Fundamental in Tackling Climate Change -- 3.5. Carbon and the Built Environment -- An Australian Perspective -- 3.5.1. Urban Form -- 3.5.2. Transport -- 3.5.3. Materials and Construction -- 3.5.4. The Role of Energy Efficiency -- 3.5.5. Resource Management -- 3.5.6. Density and Urban Form -- 3.6. Conclusion -- References -- 4. Low-Carbon Resource Management in Cities -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.2. Centralised Versus Decentralised Management Approaches -- 4.2.1. Electricity Generation -- 4.2.2. Water Management -- 4.2.3. Waste Management -- 4.3. Closing Resource Loops -- 4.4. Green Infrastructure -- 4.5. Conclusion -- References -- 5. The Precinct -- The New Scale for Decarbonising -- 5.1. Introduction -- 5.2. Defining the Precinct -- 5.3. Why the Precinct Scale? -- 5.3.1. Inclusion of Additional Urban Factors -- 5.3.2. Scale of Communities -- 5.3.3. Scale of Developers -- 5.3.4. Access to Local Government -- 5.3.5. Scale of Emerging Low Carbon Technologies -- 5.4. Conclusion -- References -- 6. Eco-Precincts -- 6.1. Introduction -- 6.2. International Case Studies -- 6.2.1. BedZED -- UK -- 6.2.2. Vauban, Freiburg -- Germany -- 6.2.3. B001, Western Harbour, Malmo -- Sweden -- 6.2.4. Hammarby Sjostad, Stockholm -- Sweden -- 6.2.5. Masdar -- United Arab Emirates -- 6.2.6. Dongtan -- China -- 6.3. Australian Case Studies -- 6.3.1. City of Sydney -- NSW -- 6.3.2. City of Fremantle -- Western Australia -- 6.3.3. North Port Quay -- Western Australia -- 6.4. Comparing Developments -- 6.4.1. Variations in Claims -- 6.4.2. Emissions Sources Included in Claims -- 6.4.3. Inconsistent Reporting -- 6.4.4. Problems with Scaling up Low-Carbon Developments -- 6.4.5. Direction Needed -- 6.5. Conclusion -- References -- 7. The Rise of Carbon Neutrality -- 7.1. Introduction -- 7.2. Defining Carbon Neutrality -- 7.3. Benefits of Carbon Neutrality -- 7.4. Carbon Neutrality: Carbonwash or the Real Deal? -- 7.5. Increasing the Credibility of Carbon Claims -- 7.6. Carbon-neutral Cities and Urban Development -- 7.6.1. Precinct-Scale Carbon Claims -- 7.7. The Need for a Sector-Specific Framework -- 7.7.1. Accounting for Carbon in Urban Development -- 7.8. Defining the Carbon Footprint -- 7.9. The Offset Polemic -- 7.9.1. The Perceived Fundamental Flaw -- 7.9.2. The Voluntary Carbon Market -- Integrity of Offsets -- 7.10. Conclusion -- References -- 8. Counting Carbon in Cities -- 8.1. Introduction -- 8.2. Determining the GHG Contribution of Cities -- 8.3. Frameworks and Initiatives for Calculating City-based Emissions -- 8.3.1. ICLEI -- Local Governments for Sustainability -- 8.3.2. Global Protocol for Community-scale GHG Emissions -- 8.4. Programmes Facilitating Emission Analysis and Reporting -- 8.4.1. C40 Cities and the Clinton Climate Initiative -- 8.4.2. CDP Cities -- 8.5. Discourse on City GHG Methodologies and Attribution -- 8.6. Conclusion -- References -- 9. Rating Carbon in Urban Development -- 9.1. Precinct-Scale Accounting Schemes -- 9.2. International Tools -- 9.2.1. BREEAM Communities -- 9.2.2. LEED Neighbourhood Development -- 9.2.3. CASBEE Urban Development -- 9.2.4. One Planet Communities -- 9.3. Australian Tools -- 9.3.1. Green Star Communities -- 9.3.2. EnviroDevelopment -- 9.3.3. PRECINX -- 9.3.4. eTool -- 9.4. Issues Around Precinct-Scale Tools -- 9.4.1. Measurement Methods -- 9.4.2. Point-Based Systems and Use of Weightings -- 9.4.3. Complexity -- 9.4.4. Phase of Adoption of the Tool -- 9.4.5. Performance and Evaluation -- 9.4.6. Functionality of Tools: Decision-Making Versus Assessment and Rating -- 9.5. The Need for a Sustainability Framework -- 9.6. Conclusion -- References -- 10. Certifying for Carbon Neutrality -- 10.1. Introduction -- 10.2. Avoiding False and Misleading Claims -- 10.3. What Is Certification and Who Conducts It? -- 10.4. Certification Schemes -- 10.4.1. CarboNZero -- 10.4.2. Certified Carbon Neutral Global Standard -- The CarbonNeutral® Company -- 10.4.3. PAS 2060:2010 -- Specification for the Demonstration of Carbon Neutrality -- 10.4.4. Carbon Neutral -- 10.4.5. Climate Friendly -- 10.4.6. NoCO2 -- The Carbon Reduction Institute -- 10.4.7. Carbon Neutral -- ICLEI -- 10.4.8. NCOS Carbon Neutral Program -- Low Carbon Australia -- 10.5. Analysis of Existing Schemes -- 10.5.1. Vested Interests -- 10.5.2. Government Endorsement -- 10.5.3. A Global Leader -- 10.6. Conclusion -- References -- 11. Spotlight: The Australian Government Carbon Neutral Standard -- 11.1. Introduction -- 11.2. The National Carbon Offset Standard -- 11.2.1. Eligible Offsets Under the NCOS -- 11.3. NCOS Carbon Neutral Program and Certification Process -- 11.3.1. The Greenhouse Gas Inventory/Carbon Footprint -- 11.3.2. The Emissions Management Plan -- 11.3.3. The Public Disclosure Summary -- 11.3.4. Annual Report -- 11.4. Issues for Certifying Precinct-Level Urban Development Under NCOS -- 11.4.1. Generic Guidelines -- 11.4.2. Catering for Different Types of Development -- 11.4.3. Dealing with Multiple Stakeholders -- 11.4.4. Issues with Ongoing Certification -- 11.4.5. Offsets -- 11.4.6. Australia's Direct Action Policy and its Effect on Offsets -- 11.4.7. Behaviour Change -- 11.4.8. Transaction Costs -- 11.5. Conclusion -- References -- 12. A New Framework and Core Elements -- 12.1. Introduction -- 12.2. Proposed GHG Framework for Precinct-Scale Urban Development -- 12.2.1. Site Preparation and Construction Process -- 12.2.2. Embodied Carbon in Materials -- 12.2.3. Energy Production and Management -- 12.2.4. Water Management -- 12.2.5. Waste Management -- 12.2.6. Travel -- 12.2.7. Phases of Precinct-Scale Emissions -- 12.3. Core Elements for Low-Carbon/Carbon Neutral Certification Within the Built Environment -- 12.3.1. A Carbon Accounting Framework for Urban Development -- 12.3.2. Online Modelling Tools -- 12.3.3. Governance -- Ongoing Management of Low-Carbon Precincts -- 12.3.4. Engagement and Behaviour Change Programs for Operational GHG -- 12.3.5. Regulations to Assist Certification -- 12.4. Conclusion -- References -- 13. Making It Work -- 13.1. Introduction -- 13.2. Benefits of Low-Carbon Development -- 13.3. Barriers to Uptake of Low-Carbon Development -- 13.3.1. Information Barriers -- 13.3.2. High Capital Costs -- 13.3.3. Split Incentives -- 13.3.4. Longer Approvals Process -- 13.3.5. First-Mover Disadvantage -- 13.3.6. Policy and Pricing Uncertainty -- 13.3.7. Lock-In -- 13.3.8. Credibility of Carbon Claims -- 13.3.9. Multiple Stakeholders -- 13.3.10. Regulatory Issues for Utilities -- 13.4. Opportunities to Overcome Barriers -- 13.4.1. Government Leadership and Facilitation -- 13.4.2. Information Campaigns -- 13.4.3. Knowledge Sharing -- Both Success and Failure -- 13.4.4. Creating Baselines for Sector -- 13.4.5. Energy Market Reform -- 13.4.6. Alternative Funding Models to Assist Low-Carbon Urban Development -- 13.4.7. Environmental Upgrade Agreements -- 13.4.8. ESCo's -- 13.4.9. Business Improvement Districts for Precinct Development -- 13.5. Mechanisms for Incentivising Precinct-Scale Carbon Reduction -- 13.5.1. Removal of Stamp Duty -- 13.5.2. Land Tax Exemptions -- 13.5.3. Labelling and Certification Schemes -- 13.5.4. Fast-Track Approval Process -- 13.5.5. Energy Efficiency Standards and Mandatory Disclosure -- 13.5.6. Green Mortgages -- 13.5.7. Renewable Energy Certificates -- 13.5.8. Energy Certificate Schemes -- 13.5.9. Carbon Trading for the Built Environment -- 13.6. Conclusion -- References -- 14. Final Thoughts -- 14.1. Introduction -- 14.2. The Carbon Reduction Potential of Urban Development -- 14.3. Certifying Low-Carbon Urban Development -- 14.3.1. Core Elements of Carbon Certification for Urban Development -- 14.4. Barriers and Opportunities -- Increasing Uptake of Low-Carbon Urban Development -- 14.5. Next -- References.
Summary: This book sets out some positive directions to move forward including government policy and regulatory options, an innovative GRID (Greening, Regenerative, Improvement Districts) scheme that can assist with funding and management, and the first steps towards an innovative carbon credit scheme for the built environment. Decarbonising cities is a global agenda with huge significance for the future of urban civilisation. Global demonstrations have shown that technology and design issues are largely solved. However, the mainstreaming of low carbon urban development, particularly at the precinct scale, currently lacks sufficient: standards for measuring carbon covering operational, embodied and transport emissions; assessment and decision-making tools to assist in design options; certifying processes for carbon neutrality within the built environment; and accreditation processes for enabling carbon credits to be generated from precinct-wide urban development. Numerous barriers are currently hindering greater adoption of high performance, low carbon developments, many of which relate to implementation and governance. How to enable and manage precinct-scale renewables and other low carbon technologies within an urban setting is a particular challenge.
Newman, Peter, 1945- (Added Author).

Citation:

Rauland, Vanessa, "Decarbonising cities : mainstreaming low carbon urban development," Cham, Switzerland : Springer, [2015]

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