|| I. Early language experience and school readiness. The brain and language acquisition: variation in language knowledge and readiness for education / Barbara T. Conboy -- The process of acquiring a first and second language / Kathryn Kohnert and Giang Pham -- Language choice and competence: code switching and issues of social identity in young bilingual children / Iliana Reyes and Susan Ervin-Tripp -- II. Language and literacy principles and practices in school. Ways to words: learning a second-language vocabulary / Lisa M. Bedore, Elizabeth D. Peña, and Karin Boerger -- The role of phonology in orthographically different languages / Ellen H. Newman -- Bilingualism and cognitive linkages: learning to read in different languages / Ellen Bialystok and Kathleen F. Peets -- Learning English as a second language / María Estela Brisk -- III. Assessment and interaction: working with children and families. Communicative repertoires and English language learners / Betsy Rymes -- Difficulty, delay, or disorder: what makes English hard for English language learners? / Carol Westby and Deborah Hwa-Froelich -- Implications for assessment and instruction / Alison L. Bailey -- Extended implications for practice: families as allies / Leslie Reese and Claude Goldenberg -- Recent research on English language and literacy instruction: what we have learned to guide practice for English language learners in the 21st century / Diane August, Claude Goldenberg, William M. Saunders, and Cheryl Dressler.